Recover or reset PFSense Admin password

I’ll keep this post short and sweet, you have lost your PFsense firewall/router Admin login password and need back in. Quick.

There are two options available to you:

To reset PFSense Admin password

Plug a monitor and keyboard into the PFSense appliance/server or connect to console
You can then select ‘Option 3) to reset the webGUI password.

Should this fail, or you have set an admin password to even get this far, then follow below;

1, Reboot appliance
2, Select boot option for ‘Single User Mode’
3, Hit enter to start /bin/sh
3, run mount -a -t ufs
4, run /etc/rc.initial.password and follow the prompts to reset password
5, reboot /sbin/reboot

Depending on what version o PFSense you are using, you will have just specified the new password, or if you did not have that option, then it will have reset to the PFSense default password of: Admin | pfsense

Let me know in the comments if this helped you or was useful to you in any way!

BGP vulnerable? – is the web as we know it at risk?

The BGP (protocol) has been on my mind the last few weeks.

It boggles my mind how fragile the web is that we all operate on, more specifically that we rely on BGP TCP/IP to maintain connections between two or more autonomous system routers.
BGP is simply put, is the Internet’s greatest weakness.

OK, so what is BGP?

According to he RFC (last pub 2006)

The primary function of a BGP speaking system is to exchange network
reachability information with other BGP systems.

GP-4 provides a set of mechanisms for supporting Classless Inter-
Domain Routing (CIDR) [RFC1518, RFC1519]. These mechanisms include
support for advertising a set of destinations as an IP prefix and
eliminating the concept of network “class” within BGP. BGP-4 also
introduces mechanisms that allow aggregation of routes, including
aggregation of AS paths.

Attacking it?

Acording to Sean Convery (cisco) from his blackhat talk in 2003 below is how you shoudld go about it (kindof, we will go into more detail later):
Reset a single BGP session to control a block of IP’s and corrupt other BGP routers. The easiest way to do this would be to gain lawful access to a BGP backbone, e.g. become an engineer for a site, or befriend someone who has access.
BGP Vulnerable

OK, so?

Well from all my readings and research, it seems like this is where the bottom foundational layer of trust the WHOLE internet lies. Without the BGP, there is no CIDR, without CIDR there is no IP’s, without IP’s there is no DNS, without DNS there is no websites, without websites many services simply die and cue end of the world scenarios.

Why was this on my mind? Well i’ve been curious about it before, but recently i have been thinking about the unseen weaknesses in CryptoCurrencies. If the internet breaks, or a government decides to hard fork/cut access and limit it, then crypto as we know it is valueless. It simply looses ALL value.
Crypto other than a few projects all works from HTTP, ip, tor, IPFS etc.. which relies on IP addressing. When the very foundation of these protocols is in question, then the whole behemoth is in danger. BGP simply is the biggest threat to modern crypto economies.

tl;dr: An old protocol (BGP) run by potentially vulnerable companies, could break the internet by issuing bad or malicious commands.

Further reading:
on wired
Cisco press

DynDNS on Sonicwall – ‘’ reports account config error or invalid parameters for domain

DynDNS on Sonicwall is a great thing – When it works

There are multiple reasons why you may be wanting to use DynDNS on Sonicwall sonicOS platform, but that is another discussion.

The problem i encountered in ALL versions of sonicOS since firmware version 5.9 is this “account config error or invalid parameters for domain”.
I finally found the resolution was to do with changing their root CA certificate, which SonicWALL firewall has not installed yet.

Solution to fix the dynamic DNS is pretty simple, we just need to import the new certificate to the Sonicwall. the Below is copied from Sonicwall’s KB article link:
Resolution or Workaround:

Right click the link below and save Baltimore CyberTrust Root CA certificate to your local drive. Then import it into SonicWALL Certificate section.


1) Login to your SonicWALL Management
2) Navigate to Network -> Dynamic DNS, on the right side delete DynDNS profile which was already created.

3) Navigate to System -> Certificates, on the right side click Import Button.

  • Select Import a CA certificate from a PKCS#7 (.p7b), PEM (.pem) or DER (.der or .cer) encoded file radio button and Click Choose File button.
  • Select bc2025 certificate file(which you downloaded from above link) from your local drive and click Open button.

        [Note:While importing bc2025.crt you might get warning as unsupported format but you can Ignore it]

  • Click Import button in Import Certificate window and you can see the Baltimore CyberTrust Root CA in SonicWALL Certificates.

4) Restart your SonicWALL and create new profile for DynDNS under Network -> Dynamic DNS by clicking Add button

Now you can see DynDNS as Online​ with updated public IP.


Hope this helps someone!